El culto a la virgen de Guadalupe: la fundación mítica de la mexicanidad
AbstractTheoretical postulates on the subject related to national identity are highly variable. In fact, it depends on each discipline that addresses it. Historians like Edmundo O'Gorman (2002), philosophers like Samuel Ramos (1990), psychologists like Santiago Ramírez (1977), gastronomes like Jeffrey M. Pilcher (2001), participation in the discussion of this concept, and different methods and models theoretical for its definition. From the perspective of their studies, they differ with respect to the topics that explain the national identity —motivations, ontology… -; but, they converge in that it has its concretion in a «common history», determined by a set of cultural characteristics —language, customs… - and specific specific historical facts — wars, rebellions… -, shared by a people. They oppose this "common history", this Mexicanity, who think that this paradigm conceals the ideological and economic differences between the strata that make up society, its genuine plurality, and maintain that such a notion is only a metaphysical discourse that dilutes the contradictions for the benefit of an apparent historical unit, in which the whole of society is presumed to be represented. The Declaration of the Lacandon Jungle, issued by The Zapatista Army of National Liberation in 1993, because of its content, is the obvious denial of the idea of a "common history". On the contrary, this "common history" is the entelechy of the dominant surgical groups from the colony, and perpetuated from liberalism, porfirismo, modernity and postmodernism to the present day, which are necessary for their political fines the formulation of a collective imaginary, of a common social teleonomy.